Arts & Crafts in Nigeria
The new review by the Garage Science Department contains theoretical books from different years, describing dramatic turns and changes in the understanding of art, its system and philosophy.
London, New York: Routledge, 1998. – 204 pp.
The metaphor of « The End of Art », which has become the subject of this review, was proposed in the mid-1980s by the American theorist Arthur Danto. In his numerous publications, he certainly did not diagnose the « death » of art as such, but stated the impossibility of its further conceptualization in the previous categories that prescribed a strictly defined, historically obligatory mode of being to artistic practice.
вЂњAny artistic movement of modernism,вЂќ he wrote, вЂњhas always put forward a number of demands that rejected everything that did not coincide with them. For Seurat, pointillism was not just ‘another kind of drawing’, but the only scientific way to paint pictures. » The ideas about art, enshrined in philosophical views (primarily in contemporary art criticism), were intended to represent not one of the possible, but the only correct image of art, which does not allow alternatives.
The situation, according to Danto, changes in the 1960s, when pop art and minimalism showed that « there are no strictly obligatory forms for art. » вЂњThe understanding has come,вЂќ he continues, вЂњthat the meaning of art cannot be grasped on the basis of templates and that the differences between art and non-art lie in the field not of the visual, but of the conceptualвЂќ. Arts & Crafts in Nigeria
The new art of the 60s gave birth to a new philosophy called pluralism, which meant the вЂњend of artвЂќ: art guided by a single historical vector and determined by only one вЂњcorrectвЂќ historical choice, reflecting its true вЂњnatureвЂќ (essence).
According to Clement Greenberg, quoted extensively in Danto, « pure art » must « coincide with the unique nature of its medium, » turning to the study of its content and boundaries: color and lines in painting, mass and volume in sculpture. The artist in this system was forced to continuously reproduce both artistic standards and the dominant philosophy of art legitimizing them. However, with the advent of pluralism, artists вЂњno longer needed to be philosophersвЂќ. They could independently determine the vector of their movement, and the problem of the « nature of art » was passed on to philosophy. According to Danto, in relation to art it is necessary to work it out to such an abstract state that it is suitable for analyzing not strictly defined, but any artistic forms: from ancient to modern, from painting to video and performance.
A modern reader, for whom the pluralism of contemporary art is more of a given, obvious during any visit to a museum or gallery, is unlikely to be satisfied with its mere statement without explaining the reasons and conditions for its reproduction. Danto’s texts, however, give a sense of the radicality of this simple discovery in the context of the incredible dogmatism of an era in which such intellectual debate took place.
Interestingly, pluralism itself in art sometimes seems to Danto not fully realized. « In the 80s, it gradually became clear that [Julian] Schnabel was drawing only Schnabels, and [David] SallГ© was stamping SallГ©. » So Danto’s вЂњend of artвЂќ can be understood in another way – as missed opportunities for truly radical transformations that were not destined to come true. V. L.
M .: Ad Marginem Press, 2015 .– 72 p.
Tarabukin belongs to the theorists of industrial art who, like many in the Russian avant-garde, prophesied « death to art. » His manifesto book From Easel to Car was written in 1923 and republished in 2015 by Garage Museum and Ad Marginem Press.
Tarabukin writes about the crisis of the « old » art – easel painting, which, having changed many times among the cubists and non-objects, has come to its natural limits. First of all – socially, because, « being pictorial, it had its own aesthetic, and at the same time social meaning … in a certain circle of a class or social group, as … an expression of class or aesthetic consciousness. »
The new art, in his opinion, should take on new, « democratic » forms, starting to produce not individual goods, but things « socially justified both in form and in purpose. »
This abstract formulation contains the main thesis of industrial art, which Tarabukin defines as a « new constructive approach to craftsmanship » that comes « not from craft technology, but from the creative coordination of two main elements of the content of a thing: its purpose and forms. » The old « museum » art, non-functional, intended for the Kantian « disinterested contemplation », Tarabukin predicts an imminent end. вЂњArt is the most perfect activity aimed at the design of the material,вЂќ he writes. Whether an artist works with a thing or an idea, on this path he is destined to turn now « from a worker-artisan to a worker-creator. »
Arts & Crafts in Nigeria